ALASKAN GLACIER STUDIES
published in the report referred to above, several of which may be used for determining the slight changes in the glacier terminus between 1899 and 1909. His map shows that the end changed from a southwest-facing terminus projecting most on the eastern side in 1898 to a south-facing terminus projecting most in the middle in 1899. The glacial streams changed slightly also.
Schrader and Spencer, in 1900, went into the Copper River valley by way of Valdez, and their topographers, Gerdine and Witherspoon, represented the Valdez Glacier upon a map, although their route lay over a new military trail which did not traverse the Valdez Glacier. They state that most of the prospectors who went into the interior
FIG. 22. SKETCH MAP OF VAIDBZ GLACEES IN 1909. The contours are in error, owing to an accident to the instrument used.
over the snow early in 1900 followed the glacier route, but that it was not utilized during the summer.1 Their map and a photograph by Spencer show the ice front much as in 1899, though the streams on the outwash plain were slightly different.
In 1901 begins the series of valuable observations of Valdez Glacier by the late L. S. Camicia, an optician and watch-maker at Valdez, who took pains to go to the glacier nearly every year since then, and who made careful measurements of the retreating ice front. He visited the glacier in 1898 and 1899 but made no measurements. In 1901 he selected stations and built monuments upon morainic knolls in front of the glacier, and, by pacing and measuring with a twenty-foot rope, determined
i Schrader, F. C. and Spencer, A. C., The Geology and Mineral Resources of a Portion of the Copper Biver District, Alaska, House Doc. 546, 56th Congress, 2nd Session, Washington, 1901, p. 19 and Plate II; also republiflhed in PI. I, Bull. 374, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1909, and Chitina Quadrangle, Map 601, U. S. Geol. Survey.